At HVDS we help clients in the Food Industry with cleaning and maintenance of air filtration and extraction systems. Our teams work to ensure that systems are suitable for use, hazard free and audit compliant. In this instance, our team were called to investigate a case of poor airflow.
The HVDS team were called on-site to a food factory to investigate poor airflow and leaking ducting. This is what they found.
So, what is wrong with these pictures?
These pictures clearly highlight poor workmanship on an installed ventilation system. Consequently, this meant poor airflow in the food factory, and the ventilation system not performing correctly.
Solving the problem – how did we proceed?
The HVDS team worked with the customer to rectify these issues and ensure correct installation, so that their food factory ventilation systems work effectively and successfully.
How can HVDS help you:
Contact us today on 01785 256 976 to find out more about our clean air solutions for the food manufacturing and processing industry.
In this infographic we take a look at Air Filters in relation to Audit Compliance, and the benefits you will gain from having an air filter audit carried out.
For a more in-depth look at Audit and Compliance, and whether your Air Filter Systems are up to scratch, click here.
Air filtration and maintaining healthy Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) levels are two of the many different operational functions for which companies are responsible. However, often these important areas are overlooked due to other perceived priorities or deferred maintenance.
This is simply bad practice, not only from a financial standpoint but also from the viewpoint of good business standards. Some facts to consider from a range of studies into IAQ include ‘a significant number of workers believe that poor IAQ has caused them to miss work‘, and ‘nearly 80% of factory workers now believe that clean air is an important priority and should be treated as such by organisations‘.
Considering the above, it is essential that senior teams have a trusted partner to support them in the optimal selection and operation of their air filtration systems, as well as robust maintenance and control systems in place.
We all know that there are many benefits to having an efficient HVAC system. These include: –
- The opportunity to create a better working environment for your staff
- Protection of the production environment
- More efficient maintenance programmes due to reduced downtime
- Cost savings through reduced energy usage facilitated by an optimised HVAC system
Specifically focusing on food production, what concerns might food processing plants have?
- Unable to meet regulatory and customer standards
- Potential compliance risks
- Concerned about productivity and absenteeism issues caused by poor IAQ
Air Filtration Audit
A thorough air filter audit of your air handling systems is the first step to provide you with professional guidance and analysis for cost savings and risk reduction. Well planned audits can discover serious issues that are leading to problems in an HVAC system. Additionally, these surveys help us catch minor troubles that could lead to serious issues if left unattended.
Furthermore it allows professionals to make recommendations on filter technology that will save you time and money by reducing labour and energy cost.
5 benefits that you will get from an air filter audit:
- Analysis of your current filter state by a team of industry experts.
- Professional guidance and analysis to reduce your energy spend, decrease your risk, and save you time.
- Valuable and detailed benchmark data.
- Life cycle cost report that will show you where your HVAC systems could be performing even better.
- A standardized list of filters by air handler unit (AHU) and application.
The provision of an efficient and effective air handling system within your food factory has proven to improve hygiene levels. HVDS’ air hygiene and air handling products and services have been installed in food manufacturing facilities throughout the UK and Ireland. We have helped to significantly improve cleanliness, hygiene and productivity within these manufacturing facilities.
At HVDS we also appreciate the critical nature and the time consumption of food audit compliance. Consequently, HVDS ensure that your audit reports are to be suitably presented to reduce audit inspection time.
When carrying out a survey on some Air Handling Units (AHUs) at a food manufacturer & processor recently, we came across this scenario; the AHU fan’s anti-vibration mounts had either completely come off or were not installed correctly.
With the fan still running and providing good airflow, it can lead you to believe that the system is fine and that it doesn’t need any immediate maintenance. However, small problems like this can lead to much bigger issues in the long run.
Why are anti-vibration mounts so important?
Here we take a look at four reasons why you should be ensuring that the fan anti-vibration mounts on your AHU’s are installed correctly:
- Anti-vibration mounts help to reduce vibration noise
- The mounts protect the fan by preventing the fan blades hitting the casing, and breaking off and throwing the fan off balance
- Anti-vibration mounts prevent structural problems occurring in the AHU caused by vibration
- The anti-vibes allow the correct and natural fluid movement of the fan whilst in operation and allows it to work at its optimum effectiveness and efficiency
Checking your anti-vibration mounts are in place correctly
As we all know, prevention is better than cure. Here at HVDS we can carry out an in-depth mechanical analysis and survey of all your AHU and fan requirements on site, to help you avoid potential costly repairs and maintenance in the future.
While clean air is a key ingredient to every part of the food and beverage manufacturing process, it is not the only ingredient involved if you take a filters only approach to clean air.
Come and join us at Food Safety Europe 2019 where HVDS will be speaking to delegates about the need for a holistic approach to clean air management and clean air risk assessments. Whereas filters are a key element, the overall health of the system needs to be assessed by engineering, hygiene and inspection auditors.
It would be dangerous to suggest that the use of any particular filter could improve shelf life as there are so many factors in the whole food manufacturing process. For example, ventilation and dust collection systems should be considered, and clean air systems should be managed in a joined up strategy.
Auditors Indoor Air Quality Risk assessments should be on the basis of a complete system inspection.
HVDS are leaders in Food Industry Clean Air Solutions.
As the only known company that is focused in the Food and Beverage business, HVDS is respected in the food industry as the preferred supplier for audit compliant Indoor Air Quality. At HVDS our focus is on more than just filters – it is to safeguard food industry processes and systems against airborne contamination. Our knowledge of how systems work give our customers peace of mind and brand protection.
As a clean air managed services provider, HVDS work with our customers to maintain filter systems to the meet the latest regulations and guidelines as well as meet the stringent requirements of audit compliance.
As a company HVDS are assisting auditors with practical steps to help their customers and clients meet Indoor Air Quality requirements.
The food processing industry, along with other industries such as medical and pharmaceuticals, has the necessity for clean rooms that can monitor particle count, type, and size, and therefore require dust controls systems to remove potentially dangerous particles from the air that can cause an explosion and are also necessary for the breathing safety of employees. In essence, dust control is essential for maintaining workplace safety.
So, how do dust control systems work?
Simply put they work by capturing particles and accumulating them in a collector until safely disposing of them, somewhat like a large and powerful vacuum cleaner.
Fans create a suction that draws the particles suspended in the air to the collector via ductwork. In the collector, the contaminated and clean airs are separated. For example, a system will push the contaminated air into the top of the collector and once inside will force it downward to the bottom. The contaminants hit the sides of the collector and then fall to the bottom while the clean air is pushed out and into another filtration system to collect the finest particles.
Why is dust control so important?
The twin threats in a food processing environment are deflagration (combustion that propagates through a gas) and disease. Both threats are caused by a fine powder of particulates that accumulate in the air within these facilities. The most efficient way to neutralize both risks is to remove these suspended particles from the atmosphere.
Deflagration is an explosion caused by the extremely rapid transfer of heat through the air and factories. Processing plants that allow suspension of particulates to propagate are setting up the environment for such an explosion. In fact, a secondary explosion usually follows, precipitated by the rapid rise in pressure caused by deflagration. As the explosion picks up fuel from the air and spreads, it can become even more destructive than the initial detonation. The entire facility can be levelled, resulting in massive loss of life and material. Dust control removes particles from surfaces and the surrounding atmosphere and significantly minimizes this danger.
In every heat explosion, there are three elements present, known as the “fire triangle”, these are oxygen, heat and fuel. When these elements are present, an explosion occurs. If suspended particulates accumulate in the air, their combined surface-area-to-volume ratio makes them highly combustible and even what may seem to be ordinary, everyday substances can become a risk.
Of course, removing heat sources is very costly and often difficult. The most effective way to minimize the risk of deflagration is to remove the elements of dispersion and fuel from the surrounding environment. This is most easily accomplished through dust control.
So, neglecting dust can have explosive consequences. Substances regularly used in industrial cooking and baking including flour, sugar and various powders, all have the potential to explode.
When substances are finely ground inside baking and cooking appliances they can create a dust cloud. This dust, when suspended and mixed with air, can cause large and even fatal explosions.
Bag tip units and bulk silo venting equipment is sometimes overlooked, but it is vital in the food manufacturing industry. These systems help reduce the amount of dust that is left over, dust that has the potential to cause explosions in the future.
Prevention is better than cure so actions such as: –
- Looking at where equipment is positioned and ensure there are no leakage points around handling systems that produce dust.
- Vacuum clean-up systems can also be used to ensure vessels and equipment are left scrupulously clean.
Let’s also take a look at the health risks for workers in a food processing plant. We know that suspended particles are readily inhaled and so removing powders from surfaces and air will minimize the health risks associated with working in these plants. Although the lungs can expel most powders to some extent, they cannot eliminate them entirely. Over time, these substances collect in the lungs and may result in irreversible health conditions. So once again, dust control is critical for safeguarding employee health.
There is something known as “Farmers lung” which can be caused from particles expelled by grains. Farmer’s lung can cause fibrosis, or scarring, of the lungs. This results in reduced breathing capacity and makes it more likely that cancer and other chronic diseases will develop. While removing a source of heat may help curtail deflagration to a point, it will not eliminate the health risks caused by suspended particles. Only dust control, performed through filters and vacuums, can accomplish this.
Prevention and Maintenance
It goes without saying that neglecting dust can have serious consequences and substances that are commonly found in the food processing industry such as flour, sugar and various powders, all have the potential to explode and so preventative maintenance is vitally important.
What sort of maintenance requirements are needed for dust control systems?
The following maintenance activities need to be carried out:
- The collector and filters must frequently be cleaned to enable the machine to run properly.
- The fan and electrical switches and boxes have to be frequently cleaned.
- The cooling vents of the machinery must be kept clean as well to prevent the machines from overheating.
- There should be an inspection for leaks in the vacuum hoses or ductwork after the cleaning. Leaks make the machine less efficient and can actually spread the contaminated particles rather than collect them.
Employee Health & Wellbeing
Employees are the most valuable asset to any business. As well as a moral obligation to protect a company’s workforce, there is also a legal obligation.
Dust that is produced as a result of food production, can also have serious effects on the health and wellbeing of employees. Exposure to dust can cause serious skin conditions and even occupational asthma, when flour dust is breathed in. In fact, respiratory conditions among bakers are now the highest of any occupation in the country.
The HSE sets a long-term Workplace Exposure Limit of 10 mg/m3 (averaged over 8 hours) and a short-term exposure limit of 30 mg/m3 (averaged over 15 minutes). Breaching of these standards can result in severe penalties, loss of productivity due to employee sickness and even legal action.
Last year, an employee from a baking company in Southampton was awarded a five-figure sum after developing occupational asthma due to over exposure to flour dust. For small or large food manufacturers, looking after employee health by reducing dust exposure is vitally important.
Also, in late 2016, a bakery company in Stevenage was fined over £36,000 for failing to comply with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) standards — a very real threat to smaller businesses.
The HSE is continuing its proactive assessment of food manufacturers for dust control and issuing penalties for the breaching of standards, but it is not just the threat of being penalised that means it is vital for the industry to take dust control more seriously. It should be about the what that companies go about their business. “This is the way we do things around here”.
A final word on the environment
Whilst most food products by their nature are not hazardous to the environment there is still a legal obligation to comply with emissions according to EPA.
For more information and advice on dust control, air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email@example.com.
We can all agree that consumer protection is one of the major concerns in the food processing industry. Food contamination can adversely affect human health as well as resulting in a loss of consumer confidence and damage to branding and customer loyalty.
In order to avoid these pitfalls, companies operating in the food and beverages industry should introduce custom designed air filters to maintain a sterile environment during the processing of food and beverages. Filtration plays a critical role in providing a safe method for removing impurities and extending the shelf life of many food products.
Why are air filters critical?
Airborne bacteria is a serious concern in food processing. Large number of bacteria, particulates, yeast and mould spores can pass through air handling systems every hour in open plant applications and filters are critical in the removal of microorganisms, Cryptosporidium and particulate matter.
Considerations when it comes to air filtration
Depending on the nature of the HVAC system – roof mounted or closed system – there are different considerations when considering air filtration.
HVAC systems mounted on rooftops require proper filter design, which may include a pre-filter bank for coarse dust contaminates, followed by higher filtration or HEPA filtration. Maintenance of these systems is essential for open plant air processing.
In closed system applications, processing and dispensing of food and/or beverages occurs in a closed work cell. Maintenance of temperature, humidity, and air filtration is an essential requirement for closed system environment. A series of HEPA filters is used for such processes.
Other air filter considerations include:-
- Filters should themselves not be a source of contamination
- Filters should be moisture resistant
- Filters should not have any fibre shredding
- Filters should be robust enough to put up with the stresses of mechanical operation
- Airtight and leak free
All of the above points also illustrate that cheap filters and filtration solutions are rarely effective, from either an operational or financial standpoint.
Of course the degree of filtration depends greatly on the type of product or products being processed, for example, highly micro-sensitive products will require the highest filter standards.
Also air intake units should also be filtered to the degree demanded by the quality of the incoming air and the contamination potential of the product being produced in the factory. These air intake units should be easily accessible for frequent cleaning to prevent interruption of the airflow. The design of any exhaust stacks and their location in relation to the intake air equipment is an important design issue.
Other concerns for food processors
Another concern for food processors is condensate in a plant, especially if it is above or close to where food is handled. Air-handling systems should be designed to minimize such issues, especially in environments where steam is used or during cleanups of cold rooms. Some processors install ventilation systems that are reversible. The process floor operates under positive pressure from HEPA-filtered air during production. During cleanup, the system is reversed to remove steam and warm air to minimize condensate and help dry the area.
Indeed it is incumbent on every food processor to look at its products and processes and evaluate potential risks.
HVDS provide a range of high quality, energy efficient air filtration, ventilation, air handling and air extraction products. Including HVAC air filters, air handling air filters, and air filtration products for air handling, ventilation and extraction.
For more information and advice on the impact air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Heat Recovery Systems – what are they and how do they work?
In simple terms, heat recovery systems work by drawing on the potentially valuable warm air or water in a factory, and getting it to work just a little bit harder.
The heat exchanger is the brain of the heat recovery system, moving the stale air through hundreds of small pipes whilst drawing in cold air from outside in other ducts. These flow past each other without mixing physically but the heat is drawn from the stale air to the cold air, which is then fed back down into the pipes and into the plant. The stale air, minus its heat, is then expelled into the atmosphere.
Types of Heat Recovery Systems
Heat recovery systems can come in a variety of forms, but all involve some form of heat exchanger. We detail these different forms below:
- Heat Recovery Wheels
The wheels can be oriented side-by-side or on-top of each other and the exchanger can be mounted vertically or horizontally directly on-site. The wheels rotate in opposite directions to each other and the energy from the stale/exhaust air is transferred to the incoming air, heating it up. The heat exchanger wheels are normally made of aluminium, but can actually be constructed from a wide range of materials including plastic and even paper. The benefit of the thermal wheel is that it is highly efficient (up to a maximum of 80%) compared to other systems and is likely to provide a quicker return on investment.
- Plate Heat Exchangers
Plate heat exchangers are essentially a box with a series of parallel plates made from metal or plastic which allows the extracted air to pass over the incoming air, transferring the energy and heating it up. The air streams are separated by the plates and never touch, so one of the key factors in the efficiency of any system is how thin and conductive the individual plates are. Many of the most efficient systems are made from aluminium, with the high standard alloy of the plate assuring the high durability of the products.
- Run Around Heat Recovery System
A run around coil can be introduced to an existing air handling system and typically consists of two coils that are connected to each other by a pumped circuit of pipes. Water is normally used to charge the circuit, picking up the heat from the exhaust pipe and transferring it to the supply air coil. Heat recovery systems such as these are used where the two air streams are not close enough for more efficient systems, such as the thermal wheel or recuperator technology. For example when airflows are required to be completely separate (e.g. hospitals). It generally delivers a maximum efficiency of around 50%.
- Heat Pumps
Heat pumps take the heat from one area and transfer it to another location. They operate in a similar way to a refrigeration unit and can be used for both cooling and warming the air. There are a number of different varieties and they can draw heat from the outside air, as well as from the ground through the use of a network of pipes.
The Benefits of Heat Recovery Systems
Now we take a quick look at the benefits of these Heat Recovery Systems:
- With heat recovery ventilation systems you can supply a much cleaner and more constant air environment for employees at any time in the year, keeping them cool in the summer and warm in the winter with smart technology.
- Installing something like a flue economiser onto a large boiler can increase its lifetime because it is not subject to sudden high temperatures that cause excessive wear and tear.
- Greater reductions in heating costs because you are using boilers and ventilation systems more efficiently.
- Significantly reduce the levels of carbon dioxide emitted.
- For businesses there is also the credibility that comes with working in a greener environment.
Waste is a significant problem in food supply chains. There is potential for spoilage of food products at any stage of the supply chain when the products reach their “best before” or “sell by date”.
As a key to the food waste problem, there is a trend towards developing shelf life solutions that are intended to allow products not only to last longer, but also to improve their quality and nutritional benefits. This cannot happen soon enough if we consider for a moment the following facts:
- Between 1.3mt and 2.6mt of food is wasted every year because the product life has expired. Households waste food because it has ‘not been used in time’ and retailers don’t sell food that has exceeded its use-by date.
- Some 250,000 tonnes of food waste can be prevented by a one-day increase in product life. This includes food wasted by households and by the retailer supply chain.
- By preventing this volume of waste, UK shoppers look at a potential shared saving of up to £500 million. The direct business benefit to retailers is approaching £100 million in waste prevention alone: with increased sales through improved on-shelf availability it is another benefit retailers may enjoy.
How can good air filtration help and support this situation?
One area that can help to reduce waste and improve supermarket shelf life is in the food processing plants and specifically, good ventilation and air filtration.
We know that poor filtration and ventilation allows for the build up of moulds and yeast, which is a major cause of product deterioration. The knock on effect in terms of waste, revenue loss and brand damage is a major issue for supermarkets, manufacturers and the end customer.
Therefore, proper air filtration and air ventilation strategies are key in order to act on the microorganisms such as bacteria and moulds found in the atmosphere. Properly maintained filtration and air ventilation systems will reduce the amount of moisture in the air and eliminate particles containing bacteria etc… by sterilising, collecting and retaining them. It is also important that ventilation and air filtration equipment is maintained, as the damp, moist or humid ventilation system can act as a breeding ground for mould.
However, it is not just the air quality in the processing plant that can help. The following factors can also be present in a supermarket;
- Gases such as carbon monoxide or radon
- Contaminants such as mold
- Improper or inadequate ventilation
and they can all affect Indoor Air Quality.
So, it is important for supermarkets to take Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) seriously in order to improve customer experience, reduce waste and improve shelf-life, however it is a sad fact that some supermarkets are not giving this issue careful consideration, outside of the energy saving and cost reduction agenda.
Talk to us about our air filtration and ventilation solutions today. Contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email@example.com.
Whatever one’s views of Brexit and whether or not you were a “Remainer” or a “Leaver”, it is safe to say that most people – businesses and individuals – outside of the Westminster bubble just want to get on with our withdrawal from the EU. But what are the implications of Brexit on the food industry?
According to the Government, the processed food and drink sector is the largest manufacturing sector in the UK and contributes £28.8 billion to the economy. With other key statistics including:
- Exports were worth £22 billion in 2017 and they continue to grow.
- The sector directly employs 400,000 people throughout the country, a third of whom are EU nationals.
The sector is characterised by just-in-time delivery of products with short shelf lives and is heavily integrated with supply chains spread across the UK and the EU for sourcing raw materials, processing goods and selling them. Many manufacturers have factories in both the UK and the rest of the EU.
Clearly then it is crucial that the sector is able to remain competitive when we leave the European Union and remember, of course, that Brexit is not just a concern for UK food producers but also for any food manufacturer (EU and non-EU) serving the UK market.
Food is not like other sectors. With climate change and population growth threatening food security globally, keeping the UK’s farmers in business matters. Not just for economic reasons but also for more prosaic but equally important reasons like maintaining the landscapes. Therefore it can be argued that what is needed is an imaginative new system of subsidy that gives public money to farmers for public goods, or risk farmers leaving the land.
Let’s take a brief look at three key areas: Supply Chains, Legislation and Freedom of movement.
- The potential impact of a Brexit on supply chains
Supply chains could indeed be affected if tariffs are imposed between the UK and the other EU Member States. Currently, products move freely across the border between the UK and the other EU Member States and no tariffs apply. Following Brexit however, the food and drink sector could face significant EU tariffs and potential supply chain disruptions.
- What about EU food legislation?
Will the UK continue to apply EU food legislation, which has been adopted, harmonized and is directly applicable throughout the EU, or will it now start introducing its own or new rules?
There are something like 4,500 or so EU regulations covering food, farming and environmental standards that fall within the remit of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Whilst it’s true that Brexiters may hate the Brussels bureaucracy that dictates everything down to the size of olive oil cans, it must be recognised that many of these rules are necessary to protect from the sort of food safety scandals and frauds of the past. They are also what make trade deals and borders frictionless. Exports depend on this sort of harmonisation of rules.
- Freedom of Movement
Another critical factor, the ending freedom of movement, will almost certainly require the creation of a new layer of bureaucracy that can deal with the permits and visas for the estimated 500,000 foreign workers that farmers, food processors and food manufacturers say they must have to stay in business.
As the short review above shows this is a very complex, multi layered, multi-national problem and is likely to be so for years to come. However, business usually finds a way through what often look like intractable problems.
Audits are critically important to food companies and should be treated as such. They are the primary tool your customers use to determine if adequate food safety systems are in place at your facility. This article covers some of the strategies and tactics that should be considered to maximise your chances of a successful audit.
We will take a look at the mechanics of an audit – what’s it all about – as well as considering some common sense tips that will help facilitate a smooth audit visit.
In simple terms, an audit is an answer to a series of specific questions and how you meet them. The Plan, Do, Check Act (PDCA) model is an ideal way to begin to approach an audit.
Plan: What are the rules of the game?
Here we need to consider what are the objectives of the audit and what are the parameters. Know your standard inside and out. You need to know it better than the auditor so you can speak with authority when something comes up that you don’t agree with. You need to be an expert.
Do: What is your procedure?
This is the crux of the audit. The auditor has asked about a requirement under the standard, and now you need to show him (evidence) how you do it. This needs to be written down in a controlled policies and procedure document.
Your goal here is to lead the auditor down a straight and clear path. The auditor reviews the document for compliance to the standard and moves on to his next question.
So, the process needs to include:-
- A written document control procedure with clear responsibilities.
- A way that staff can access the documents.
- A listing (register) of all the documents in the system
- A document retention or storage system
Check: What proof do you have that it was done?
We are back to evidence again. For example, you go over a procedure with the auditor and then he will want proof that it was done according to that procedure. So what can you show the auditor to demonstrate that this is how you do things? Remember if a procedure isn’t documented, you have no proof that it was done.
You may at this point bring up other areas where you test your system as well such as internal audits, self assessment etc. Also consider that auditors will judge behaviours against the evidence they see, so “talking a good game” won’t necessarily cut it if your evidence logs are not consistent with what the auditors sees.
Act: What happens if it is not correct?
We all recognise – even auditors – that no system is perfect, and if it is the auditor will be suspicious. Auditors expect to see errors in your system; they expect to see that things didn’t go as planned. The key here is being able to demonstrate what you did about it. This is your corrective action procedure. Just like document control, it operates the same. So, just like document control, you need a procedure that addresses the requirements and proof that it is followed. Your errors are your proof.
Above all any auditor is looking for clarity and easy path to navigate their way through your processes. The PDCA model can help you to do that.
Now we take a look at some tips that can help you in preparing for and executing a successful audit.
As we have discussed earlier, audits are largely based on the ability to provide the auditor with evidence that operations are compliant with a certain standard. The types of thing that will alert the auditor or make him want to dig deeper include a lack of organisation, untrained staff, and misinterpretation of compliance criteria. So in order to minimise this, here are 5 points to consider:
1.Small things matter
Make sure that conditions throughout the plant are tidy and things are labelled and in their rightful place. There should be sufficient space between the wall and stored material for pest control and cleaning activities to take place. Also ideally your internal audit should be conducted at least two months prior.
2. Teamwork is vital to success
At least three weeks before the audit have a staff meeting to prepare. Employees should be familiar with their written job descriptions and the monitoring records they are responsible for. Also staff and management need to have an understanding of:
- The hazards related to the CCP identified in the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, or HACCP, plan.
- Terms such as “corrective action,” and the difference between verification and validation.
- The difference between recall and traceability.
3. Last minute won’t cut it
Preparation is the key to a successful audit outcome and so actions like filling out documentation in front of the auditor, or correcting deviancies while the audit is being conducted just won’t work. It is also important to use assertive language when speaking with the auditors. Cut out terms like “we try” or “sometimes.”
4. Senior Management involvement
We all have been part of audits where management is not available to attend either the opening or closing meeting. It is in the best interest of the company for someone in a senior role to be briefed prior to the meeting, and meet with the auditor. Adopting an accredited standard is a serious commitment. Senior management should speak with the auditor about the standard/audit and explain some of the steps that have been taken to comply with the standard.
5. Don’t be defensive
Auditors are human beings too, and they will not take kindly to being challenged especially on an area where you clearly don’t comply. Remember they are just doing their job, and the main activity of that job is to collect data. So, if you disagree with the findings, take it up through the appeals process. You can challenge the auditor after the report is issued. Stay positive and the audit will go more smoothly.
If you want to know more about how HVDS can help you to comply with relevant standards relating to clean air in the food industry, please contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Employees in food processing industries can face numerous health and safety hazards on the job. Some of these many risks include ergonomic, slip, fall, chemical and amputation hazards. Additionally, stressful, fast-paced work environments lead to accidents of varying degrees of severity. While much of the emphasis is on the safety of food products, the safety of the workers who make those products has seen more attention the past several years.
So what are some of the risks that employees on the food processing plant shop floor face?
Many potential work related illnesses are not unique to the food processing industry. For example, back pain, stress, noise damage, skin diseases can be found in all manufacturing environments. However, there are some risks that are unique to the food industry:
- The risk of combustible dust – A typical combustible dust explosion has two phases: an initial explosion within the processing equipment, followed by a secondary explosion caused by additional dust igniting and dispersing into the air. The food industry is particularly susceptible to these types of explosions. Virtually every ingredient used in food has the potential to become combustible dust, especially sugars, flours, starches, and spices.
- Musculoskeletal disorders – Problems with the muscles, tendons, ligaments or joints affect many people in the food processing industry. Over time, these conditions can not only cause debilitating injuries for workers, but they can also cost companies significantly in medical bills, workers’ compensation insurance premiums, and perhaps most significantly form a productivity viewpoint, low employee morale.
- Improper or non use of personal protective equipment (PPE) – Items such as gloves, goggles, and aprons, can greatly reduce workers’ exposure to harmful substances and environments. But only if workers actually wear them.
- Asthma – As many as 3,000 workers develop occupational asthma each year, while up to 4,000 more who already have the condition, are made worse because of their job. It is thought to be caused by an allergic reaction to airborne particles, such as flour or wood dust.
If these are some of the risks what can be done to mitigate them?
As you would expect the HSE (Health & Safety Executive) provides a huge range of advice on complying with Health and Safety Law and staying safe at work. A lot if this is plain common sense.
To protect workers from harm, employers are required to establish procedures and controls for dangerous equipment, safety and emergency response programs. However, they need to go farther than that to protect against some of the points highlighted above. For example, if we look at the dust risk, organisations should be adopting dust control strategies, including:
- Implement a hazardous dust inspection, testing, housekeeping, and control program;
- Use proper dust collection systems and filters;
- If ignition sources are present, use cleaning methods that do not generate dust clouds.
It is also about creating a “safety culture” within the organisation and this starts with the tone at the top because unless senior managers and directors do not buy in to the safety ethos then you will not create that safety culture. The absence of a top-down approach will doom any improvement programmes. However, with management’s support, employee safety committees will flourish. In a safety culture, companies constantly strive for continuous improvement and employees know that their safety is more important than keeping lines running at all costs.
One of things that underpins a true “safety culture” is training. The food manufacturing environment is only as safe as the people working in it and so providing regular, ongoing training is essential not only for worker safety and well-being but also for improved productivity, quality and ultimately bottom line results.
For more information on how HVDS can help you to create a safe working environment contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email@example.com.
The concept of Diffusion Ducting is designed to provide an even distribution of hot or cool air throughout closed worksites and temporary buildings.
Advanced industrial fabric with perforations allows for more efficient air circulation along the entire length of the duct, while ensuring strength and durability. It has been developed for use with heater ducts or industrial fans.
- Improve air distribution and efficiency
Because they consist of air distribution holes this allows the air that passes through the holes to create what is known as ‘high induction’ which can significantly improve air distribution and efficiency.
- Improved hygiene levels
In addition, there is increased hygiene and no condensation.The high induction effect prevents the moisture stagnation in the ducts that usually results in condensation development. This minimises air borne particles from moisture related bacteria that are emitted to the indoor environment from your air handling system.
- Quick installation
Other benefits include fast installation and delivery. For example, due to their lightweight design, the fabric ducting systems can be easily transported using a standard delivery method. Their lightweight construction also means that the fabric ducts require fewer fixings and assembling components, therefore making installation quick and simple.
- Easy to clean
Also, it’s easy to clean and can be easily washed. It’s as simple as removing, washing and sanitising the fabric ducting systems, and then replacing them in their original positions.
By ensuring an improved indoor air quality (IAQ) and an optimised air distribution, fabric ducts help to generate a healthier and more hygienic environment for your employees and manufacturing process within your food factory.
Improved IAQ has proven to significantly increase labour productivity and reduce sickness related absence, and the costs associated with the correlated downtime. They also guarantee stable and homogeneous air diffusion in all types of installation.
In this infographic we take a simple look at The Hygiene Zone Concept, and what is high risk, high care & low risk.
The demand for food processing has reached an all-time high and will continue to grow, especially as the demand for fresh and mostly unprocessed foods rises. So what can food production plants do to to ensure the highest possible standards of hygiene?
The Cornerstone in Prevention of Food Contamination
Depending on the hygiene requirements, the food plant should be zoned into at least three areas: B, M and H, standing for basic, medium and highest levels of hygiene, described in more detail below:
High hygiene ( high risk) zone
The highest level of hygiene must be maintained in these enclosed areas for the processing and packaging of products. A “High Hygiene” room, which, in food processing is the equivalent of a cleanroom, must be completely contained. This zone is typical for open processing, where even short exposure of product to the atmosphere can result in a food safety hazard All dangers that could lead to food contamination or microbial growth must be effectively controlled or prevented. The objective for H zones is to control all product contamination hazards and to protect the interior of food processing equipment from exposure to atmosphere. Filtered air must be supplied to this area.
Medium hygiene (high care) zone
The objective here is to directly control or reduce the potential sources of contaminants in order to protect food production from contamination. It includes process areas where products are produced that are susceptible to contamination, but where the consumer group is not especially sensitive and where no further microbial growth is possible in the product in the supply chain.
Basic hygiene (low risk) zone
This includes, for instance, areas where the packaged foods are stored and which therefore require only a basic level of hygiene. Examples of a Basic zone include the area outside the buildings within the perimeter of the site where the objective is to control or reduce hazards created by unauthorized personnel entry and hazards created by water, dirt, dust and presence of animals. Also Basic zones include warehouses that store both raw materials and packed processed products, offices, workshops, power supply areas, canteens and redundant buildings/rooms. The objective for a Basic zone is to control or reduce hazards created by birds and pests.
It is clear that in the food industry a hygienic production environment is critical for optimum processes and to meet with the relevant regulatory requirements and therefore the implementation of hygienic design into food processing facilities is vital.
Such an environment can prevent development of pests, avoid product contamination and facilitate cleaning and sanitation and preserve hygienic conditions both during and after maintenance.
HVDS provide a range of high quality, energy efficient air filtration, ventilation, air handling and air extraction products, including HVAC air filters.
For more information and advice on the impact of air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
How much fresh air should be going into the food production area?
Effective air filtration and a good level of air hygiene are not only important to ensure a safe and comfortable working environment, but effective food production air handling is also essential to reduce or prevent the possibility of airborne contamination in High Care and High Risk Areas.
If we consider that outside air carries between 200 – 1500 bacteria per m3, then a regular food processing plant can be being supplied with millions of bacteria hourly. So it goes without saying that all food manufacturing and processing facilities require efficient air filtration and effective extraction and ventilation in a food factory. It is also necessary to ensure the air flow containment of these critical working areas.
Failure to install and maintain an effective and efficient air filtration system can lead to a loss of production and lost sales at best, and loss of consumer confidence and brand damage, not to mention potential litigation at worst.
So let us focus on High Risk areas in regard to filtration and ventilation in a food factory.
The management of air filtration within High Risk Areas is crucial to ensure that the air introduced does not contain micro-organisms of concern and not be the source of additional contamination.
There are certain aspects that need to be considered to maintain the recommended and required levels of ventilation in a food factory.
This includes extraction and filtration of the air in the High Risk environments:
- To establish the air quality standards that are required, it is important to carry out a hazard analysis (HACCP).
- Air intake (fresh air supply) needs to be located to minimise the intake of contaminated or re-contaminated air. For example, upwind of potential contaminants such as dust and chemical vapours.
- A documented risk assessment must be conducted to determine the requirement for air filtration.
- There is no ‘universal’ standard for air filtration. However, the filter grade required will depend on the source of the air and the period of exposure to high risk products and ingredients.
- Some accreditation schemes and governing bodies may have regulations in place with regards to a required grade of filtration.
- The effectiveness of the filter and system employed should be checked by the use of periodic sampling of the air, close to the outlet of the air ducts for microbiological quality.
- The air filter replacement frequency is just as important as the air filter specification. The buildup of dust, dirt and grease on air filters in the food production air handling system can result in re-circulation of contaminated air.
- Without regular cleaning, air will pass through the polluted duct carrying bacteria onto or around the food process areas. It is important to maintain a routine air duct and air handling cleaning schedule.
- Maintaining positive air pressure compared to adjacent areas, particularly where there is a connection with low risk areas.
Over the last decade, the food industry has seen a rapid evolution of food safety regulations. Many food manufacturers have had to make significant developments to processes, procedures and resources to remain compliant with regulations.
As a result of changing consumer habits and as rise in the demand for specially manufactured dietary foods, there is a continued growth in the ‘types’ of food manufacturing and processing facilities that we are seeing in the food industry. In many cases, each manufacturing process is different and requires a unique layout and organisation of a facility, which is centred around the specific production output.
Although this proves to benefit the consumer and reassures manufacturing quality, it does however mean that it isn’t easy to provide a ‘universal’ solution for individual food production air handling requirements.
On the other hand, it can be simplified, and overall the requirements for air handling in High Care and High Risk Areas can be defined as:
The inbound or fresh air supply into High Care and High Risk Areas needs to undergo sufficient filtration to reduce or prevent the risk of airborne contamination. And the air extraction mapping of the potentially contaminated air that is produced within the High Care and High Risk areas is filtered and distributed in a way that will help prevent cross contamination.
On the 62nd anniversary of the first Clean Air Act, a Bill which seeks to establish Clean Air as a legal human right, has been read for the first time in the House of Lords.
Introduced by the Green Party peer Baroness Jenny Jones, the draft legislation sets out a series of commitments for government to tackle air pollution This includes enshrining a ‘right to clean air’ within law.
The full text of the Bill reads: “A Bill to establish the right to breathe clean air; to require the Secretary of State to achieve and maintain clean air in England and Wales; to involve Public Health England in setting and reviewing pollutants and their limits; to enhance the powers, duties and functions of the Environment Agency, the Committee on Climate Change, local authorities (including port authorities), the Civil Aviation Authority, Highways England, Historic England and Natural England in relation to air pollution; to establish a Citizens’ Commission for Clean Air with powers to institute or intervene in legal proceedings; to require the Secretary of State and the relevant national authorities to apply environmental principles in carrying out their duties under this Act and the clean air enactments; and for connected purposes.”
However, before the draft legislation can be passed into law it would require support from both the Lords and the House of Commons, passing through varying stages of scrutiny along the way.
Commenting on the draft legislation earlier this year, Baroness Jones said: “I’m very excited by the idea of the Clean Air Bill making the right to healthy air a human right. We should all enjoy clean air even when we are working in a busy city, or living under an airport flight path. I hope that people will add their ideas to this Bill and support my attempt to push the Government into action.
“There are big debates coming up this year as we need to replace the European environmental safeguards with tough UK laws and enforcement. I think this Bill contains some key proposals which could make us world leader for environmental regulation.” Clean Air in London, the air quality campaign group led by Simon Birkett, has collaborated with Baroness Jones to draft the Bill.
The proposed law also has support from environmental lawyer, ClientEarth lawyer Katie Nield said: “There is an urgent need for government, especially as the UK prepares to leave the EU, to come up with new consolidated legislation that protects people’s right to breathe clean air and provides a stronger and clearer framework for action to tackle air pollution. This new proposal should prompt further, much-needed debate on the topic.
The UK is still suffering day to day with illegal and harmful levels of air pollution and ClientEarth has long been calling for a new Clean Air Act which is fit for the 21st century. With the second bill on the subject now being presented, momentum is building.”
HVDS provide a range of high quality, energy efficient air filtration, ventilation, air handling and air extraction products, including HVAC air filters.
HVDS – Your Trusted Partner In Clean Air.
A recent report concluded that there are over 10,000 supermarkets with an average floor space of 35,000 square feet and undoubtedly such large and complex structures create an impact on the local environment.
Exposure to pollutants in the supermarket environment has the potential to produce health related issues for both employees and shoppers. This is more acute because of the high concentrations of people, products and sources of pollutants. We have spoken in previous blogs about VOC’s and in a supermarket environment where they both use and sell products that emit VOC’s this is a real concern for supermarkets and the need to manage and optimize hygienic indoor air quality.
So what can be done?
There are three ways to reduce indoor air pollutants:
- Source control
- Increased ventilation
Let’s focus on filtration and the issues that can arise if filters in supermarkets are not changed frequently as part of a robust maintenance schedule.
If you don’t change your HVAC filter, it will, not surprisingly begin to fail. It will no longer be able to filter the air properly, letting dust and contaminants get into the HVAC. Dust jams the moving parts of a system such as fan motors and valves. The HVAC system will draw more power to overcome the obstacle and as a result the unit is less energy efficient. This leads, of course,to a rise in energy bills and as all the major supermarket chains are driven by very aggressive cost saving models, this should be raising a red flag to them.
This is clearly a concern for supermarkets. The only type of filters that catch allergens and spores are HEPA,(high energy particulate air filters). These are made of a much finer mesh than other filters, and so can screen out tiny particles such as allergens, pollen, dander, and mould spores.
It goes without saying that HEPA filters give better indoor air quality by controlling the likes of pollen and dust, but if moisture is allowed to accumulate in the ducts, it can lead to serious mould infestations.
The air in HVAC filters through the system five to seven times a day. That’s a lot of circulation, bringing whatever’s inside your system with it. Pollen, mould, and germs will quickly spread throughout any building which can create health problems for people. So our advice would be to have a programme of maintenance that includes checking and changing filters and help to avoid Sick Building Syndrome. Supermarket employees and customers will thank you for not making them suffer with allergies and illness.
In addition, of course, contamination can have the effect of reducing the shelf life of products which will lead to increase in waste and loss of sales revenue.
Failure to have a robust maintenance schedule will only lead to trouble. The filter itself isn’t the only thing that will stop working as it should. Dust in the ducts will degrade the moving parts, making them run slower and consequently use more power. This will wear out the mechanics of the unit at a faster rate than normal use. The average lifespan of an HVAC unit is fifteen to twenty years. Without a regular change of the AC filter, that can be shortened by five to ten years. A significant impact on cost control.
Eventually you will have to replace parts of the HVAC system as they break, and that can get expensive. Consider the minimal cost of filters as an alternative to the much greater cost of larger repairs. That doesn’t even take into account the business you might lose if you have to close part of the supermarket down for a period of time to carry out major repairs or installation of new systems.
So, the tell tale signs of poor filter maintenance can include increased energy costs, contaminated food, unwell staff and disgruntled customers – some price to pay for the sake of some relatively straightforward and cheap store management.
For more information and advice on the impact air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email@example.com or here
One of the factors that affects indoor air quality (IAQ) in food processing plants is odour emissions, and when the emissions have a negative impact this can lead to production problems such as a decrease in productivity and an increase in absenteeism. In short, IAQ has a massive impact on employee health and productivity.
To perform effectively in their roles, the air circulation, extraction and ventilation should be optimised to ensure the health and comfort of employees. The health repercussions from poor IAQ are extensive and links have been made to illness ranging from headaches and respiratory difficulties through to heart and liver damage, and even cancers.
However, poor indoor air quality may also account for food products becoming tainted with an alien smell or taste that has been absorbed at some point during the production process. This, of course can have a dramatic impact on sales, consumer confidence and brand loyalty
It is worth reminding ourselves of Codex Alimentarius (Recommended International Code of Practice General Principles of Food Hygiene) which states, in regard to air quality:
“4.4.6 AIR QUALITY AND VENTILATION
Adequate means of natural or mechanical ventilation should be provided, in particular to:
– minimize air-borne contamination of food
– control ambient temperatures
– control odours
– control humidity
Ventilation systems should be designed and constructed so that air does not flow from contaminated areas to clean areas.”
All food factories require ventilation and air filtration is necessary to ensure the containment of critical working areas. Because air can act as a source of contamination with sources from outside the processing area or acting as a transport medium, moving contamination from other sources within the processing area.
Hygienic Indoor Air Quality is required for the safety and comfort of employees, to maintain a safe working environment, to reduce the possibility of contamination and to help ensure the shelf-life of the product.
In many food processing facilities there is a lot of what can be described as low level IAQ. This is usually caused by contamination from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s). VOC’s are organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure at room temperature, this pressure causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate into the air, causing contamination of the workplace environment. VOC’s can emanate from a number of unlikely applications; from computers and printers, manufacturing machinery, construction materials, furniture and furnishings, floor coverings and cleaning products.
All of these products and applications omit a range of VOC’s, including formaldehyde, toluene and other chemical solvents. To add to the contamination, heat produced by machinery and technical equipment accelerates the diffusion of emissions into the surrounding air. And since, on average as a nation, we spend 90% of our time indoors and more than a third of this in the workplace, the importance of workplace IAQ becomes apparent.
Understanding where and how air moves around within a production facility doesn’t just improve employee productivity, but it also offers other important benefits:
- Ventilation mapping, air supply and extraction are central to food manufacturing compliance audits; ensuring hygiene and compliance with legal and regulatory requirements
- Clean air handling is essential for maintaining separation between high care and low care areas, and when these are effectively managed they can reduce the amount of financial loss related to down-time from contamination.
Investment and Cost Savings
Initial outlays for a better IAQ can be as little as a few hundred pounds depending on the physical size of a business and the air handling products and services that are required. However, once it is completed the business potential of 20% increased labour productivity, significantly reduced outgoing costs from inefficient air handling and limiting the possibility of a negative brand reputation, far outweighs the investment, and even changes the strategy from business retention to business development.
For more information and advice on the impact air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The demand for synthetic fibre filters is growing in comparison to fibreglass filters, and with good reason.
Synthetic fibre air filter media can be used in most atmospheric air or recirculated air filtration applications and are particularly well suited for the ventilation of offices, factories, airports and food processing plants.
Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of Synthetic Fibre Filters and Glass Fibre Filters:
Many different industries need to achieve the highest possible standard of air quality in order to minimize and eliminate various airborne pathogens that could cause anything from food contamination to chemical exposure.
It stands to reason then that when making decisions about which filters to invest in, companies to need to take into account environmental factors as well as performance.
Synthetic filters are environmentally friendly, easy to incinerate, and are low-cost with a limited effect on the environment. And in terms of performance, with synthetic fibres having a greater dust holding capacity, it is a competitive performer.
Synthetic filters make good sense for your business, for the health of your personnel, and for the environment.
Over the past years various tests have been carried out both in laboratories and in live applications. All results point to synthetic filters as the safer and better alternative especially in the food industry.
HVDS is a trusted UK supplier of a range of high quality, energy efficient air filters and air handling products. Our products include HVAC air filters, HEPA filters, carbon filters and air filtration products for air handling, ventilation and extraction.
For more information and advice on the impact air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or email@example.com.
Food contamination by microorganisms is a major public health and economic problem in the food processing industry. Airborne bacteria and contamination can occur at various points of the food production process, for example in the slaughter process, cold storage, and in the processing of meat and other foodstuffs.
Organisms can use air as a transport medium to either contaminate product surfaces directly, or to contaminate contact surfaces, and therefore it is clear that the air inside food production plants needs to be controlled.
Simple practices such as keeping doors closed or controlling employee traffic can be essential in controlling air contamination.
However, there is more to it than that and below are the factors we believe are pertinent when considering control of airborne bacteria in the processing environment.
- Doors: Doors should remain closed as much as practical. This will prevent entrance of excess outside air and fluctuation of ambient temperature and humidity. (see below) However, this is easier said than done especially in areas of heavy traffic but in those instances it is essential that door maintenance is up to date.
- Employee Traffic: The area of highest employee traffic is the point at which the most people are moving in and out of the room during the day and as people carry a number of microorganisms on their person it is not surprising that movement of staff and other personnel, outside contractors for example, is associated with higher contamination levels.
- HVAC Fan Operation: HVAC fan operation causes increased air flow and that air flow will affect air contamination and, in the absence of a means of separation, for example a wall, microorganisms may be moved by the air flow into clean areas. The use of correctly selected and installed air filtration installed into the HVAC system will reduce the amount of airborne bacteria.
- Ambient Temperature: Maintaining cool temperatures is very important as most bacteria thrive in temperatures higher than that which you’d use for refrigeration. Likewise, any increase in ambient temperature also heightens the survival of airborne bacteria.
- Ambient Humidity: An increase in humidity increases the likelihood of survival of microorganisms in the air. Humidity can increase in a food production facility from the entrance of outside or warm air into a much cooler environment and vise versa.
Other elements such as the time of the year or time of day, as well as the external temperature and humidity, should also be taken into account although these cannot be controlled.
It is also worth noting that as the working day progresses, the amount of air contamination increases, and likewise as the working week progresses, there is an increase in the overall contamination of air with bacteria.
So what are some of the controls that we can put in place to regulate the air conditions in food processing plants?
- Make sure that doors are kept closed at all times to reduce the chance of cross contamination and to assist the cooling units in maintaining temperature. In addition, ensure that doors are properly maintained and that they fit properly.
- Correctly pressurised rooms with the air cascade working in the right direction from the highest risk area to the lowest risk areas will also reduce the bacteria count based on the correct ventilations system set up.
- Route traffic around the processing area rather than through it to reduce contamination.
- Ensure your HVAC units are in good working order and consistently maintaining temperature. Routine, regular maintenance is essential.
- Install recirculating air filtration units to help reduce the amount of bacteria and molds in the atmosphere.
HVDS provide a range of high quality, energy efficient air filtration, ventilation, air handling and air extraction products, including HVAC air filters.
For more information and advice on the impact air filtration and ventilation contact us at HVDS on 01785 256976 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) can be affected by various factors:
- Gases such as carbon monoxide or radon
- Contaminants such as mold
- Improper or inadequate ventilation
All of these factors can be present in a supermarket, which are complex buildings, especially with regard to heating and ventilation, and they can all affect Indoor Air Quality. On the one hand they require tight humidity controls to prevent frost build up, for example in the refrigerated aisles. However, that leads to cool/cold air being spilled across the aisles thereby creating a cold, unwelcoming environment for the consumer.
So, being able to lower the humidity whilst maintaining a pleasant temperature is a challenge. Especially when supermarkets must strive to create an environment that is comfortable for the shopper and safe for the worker.
Take this scenario for example: while you are controlling humidity in a supermarket, you also have to deal with ventilation air requirements.This is especially important in supermarkets that have an in-house bakery. When you have bakeries, you have more exhaust air, so you need ventilation air to make up for that exhaust.Supermarkets also have open food on the deli, fish and meat counter. In addition, it is also vital to maintain a healthy IAQ in the building, so you want adequate exhaust air. And this is all going on whilst trying to maintain a good aesthetic and environment for the shopper.
A further challenge is that supermarkets are wanting to maintain IAQ but with minimum energy use, especially as spiralling energy costs are creating serious financial challenges in a very competitive sector. It is worth remembering that supermarkets use four to five times more energy per square foot than any other type of commercial building.
Interestingly, most of the narrative – articles in trade press etc. – is about energy savings and cost control rather than discussion around environmental factors and the impact of IAQ, and perhaps that needs to change.
Indeed, whilst it is well reported that outdoor air pollution can be, and is harmful to one’s health, there is little attention given to indoor air quality in the same way. So, why are some supermarkets not giving this issue careful consideration, outside of the energy saving and cost reduction agenda? ? Why is it where filters are used, the unit cost of filters is the most important rather than quality and the right filter?
This leaves many with the question – Is it possible to maximize energy efficiency and cost savings, while providing an indoor air quality that satisfies consumers and staff, as well as ensuring food safety at the right temperature and humidity?